A1C Now Used to Diagnose Diabetes

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A1C Now Used to Diagnose Diabetes

Hemoglobin A1C values are now used to not only treat blood sugar levels, but to diagnose diabetes as well. With earlier diagnosis, vision loss may be decreased due to earlier, and easier, diagnosis.

The American Diabetes Association now recommends basing the diagnosis of diabetes upon the hemoglobin A1C levels and not on fasting glucose tests.  In addition, an A1C of less than 7.0% should be the target for glucose control.  How with this impact the treatment of diabetic retinopathy?

The change in recommendations stems from the fact that the A1C blood test is an easier, and faster, test to run than measuring a fasting plasma glucose and an oral glucose tolerance test.  Both tests require overnight fasting for accuracy; that is, it relies on patient compliance.  The A1C does NOT require overnight fasting.

A1C measures the average blood glucose levels for the period of up to 3 months and was previously used just to measure sugar control over time, but now, it is recommended to be used for diagnosis;

  • A1C  of 5%  – no disease
  • A1C of 5.7 to 6.4% – likely prediabetes
  • A1C > 6.5% – likely diabetes

The ability to diagnose the test using A1C guidelines now means that the diagnosis of diabetes can be made earlier.  Earlier detection (diagnosis) may mean a greater chance of  “curing” type II diabetes by making lifestyle changes earlier.

What Does This Mean? The ability to diagnose and treat this disease now has some firm, “black and white,” guidelines.  More patients will be detected and at an earlier age.  Therapy and education may be instituted earlier.  For instance, patient education regarding diabetic retinopathy may be instituted sooner.  In this respect, more patients will be “saved” over the long run.  In theory, patients will be directed for eye exams before the retinopathy begins.

It is also likely, that with tighter sugar control (i.e. good A1C levels), diabetic eye disease will progress slower.  We’ll see.

“Randy”

Randall V. Wong, M.D.
Ophthalmologist, Retina Specialist
Fairfax Virginia

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