While not a retinal problem, cataracts can “return” and can mimic the symptoms of the original cataract; blurred vision, glare and distortion. This can usually be remedied by a simple painless laser procedure called a YAG capsulotomy.
Like grey hair, everyone gets cataracts. With time, the natural lens of the eye clouds with time. This clouding decreases vision. The lens is similar to an “M&M” piece of candy both in size and shape. An M&M is a core of milk chocolate surrounded by a candy coated shell.
When cataract surgery is performed, the cataract surgeon cuts a hole in the outside candy coating. The “chocolate” (core of the lens) is then sucked out leaving the empty candy coated shell. In the real eye, this shell is actually a clear tissue very similar to plastic wrap used to cover food. This shell is called the “capsular bag.”
Once the cloudy natural lens material is removed, a clear plastic implant is used to replace the natural lens. Vision is restored.
With time, from weeks to years, this clear plastic wrap-like material can get cloudy. The original symptoms of blurry vision and glare return. Decreased vision from “posterior capsule opacification” occurs in almost every cataract patient.
A YAG laser is a type of laser that uses its energy to cut. By focusing the laser beam on the back portion of the candy coating shell, just behind the implant, a small hole is created. This removes the cloudy/hazy tissue out of the line of sight and vision is restored.
Properly performed, a YAG capsulotomy will not cause the implant to move. While it has happened (and to me!), it is unusual as the implant is usually scarred in place.
What Does This Mean?
Many of my patients have had cataract surgery. It is a relief when we find the cause of the decreased vision is only due to PCO (posterior capsule opacification) and not due to diabetic retinopathy or macular degeneration.
Many people erroneously believe (and perpetuated by some docs) that cataracts “come back.” They don’t.
This is also why many people believe cataract surgery is performed with laser. It isn’t, but now you know why, and how, the rumor started.